Developmental Brain Disorder Gene Database

LoF Variant Gene





HGNC:15766 (protein-coding gene)

activity dependent neuroprotector homeobox

Unique Cases:
Last Updated:
January 24, 2024

Gene Summary:

DBD Genes Classification
ADNP is a High Confidence candidate gene classified as Tier 1. Tier 1 genes have three or more de novo pathogenic loss-of-function variants.
Gene Function
May be involved in transcriptional regulation. May mediate some of the neuroprotective peptide VIP-associated effects involving normal growth and cancer proliferation. Positively modulates WNT-beta- catenin/CTNN1B signaling, acting by regulating phosphorylation of, and thereby stabilizing, CTNNB1. May be required for neural induction and neuronal differentiation. May be involved in erythroid differentiation (By similarity). {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q9Z103}. (Source: Uniprot)
Previous symbols
No previous symbols
Alias symbols
Chromosomal Location
Genomic Coordinates
Associated Disorders
Intellectual Disability, Autism, Epilepsy, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Cerebral Palsy

Predictive Scores:

HI Score (Decipher)


pLI (gnomAD)


LOEUF (gnomAD)


Classifications from External Sources:



DDG2P Classification (DDG2P)

No Classification

ClinGen Classification (ClinGen)


GenCC Classification (GenCC)

Definitive3 Strong1 Supportive1


Guo H et. al., Genome sequencing identifies multiple deleterious variants in autism patients with more severe phenotypes., Genet Med, 2019
Wang T et. al., Large-scale targeted sequencing identifies risk genes for neurodevelopmental disorders., Nat Commun, 2020
Pascolini G et. al., Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome as emerging clinical diagnosis in intellectually disabled children with autistic traits and ocular involvement., Eur J Paediatr Neurol, 2018
Monroe GR et. al., Effectiveness of whole-exome sequencing and costs of the traditional diagnostic trajectory in children with intellectual disability., Genet Med, 2016
Helsmoortel C et. al., A SWI/SNF-related autism syndrome caused by de novo mutations in ADNP., Nat Genet, 2014
Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study. et. al., Large-scale discovery of novel genetic causes of developmental disorders., Nature, 2015
Coe BP et. al., Neurodevelopmental disease genes implicated by de novo mutation and copy number variation morbidity., Nat Genet, 2019
O'Roak BJ et. al., Sporadic autism exomes reveal a highly interconnected protein network of de novo mutations., Nature, 2012
O'Roak BJ et. al., Multiplex targeted sequencing identifies recurrently mutated genes in autism spectrum disorders., Science, 2012
Guo H et. al., Inherited and multiple de novo mutations in autism/developmental delay risk genes suggest a multifactorial model., Mol Autism, 2018
Coe BP et. al., Refining analyses of copy number variation identifies specific genes associated with developmental delay., Nat Genet, 2014
Chérot E et. al., Using medical exome sequencing to identify the causes of neurodevelopmental disorders: Experience of 2 clinical units and 216 patients., Clin Genet, 2018
Munnich A et. al., Impact of on-site clinical genetics consultations on diagnostic rate in children and young adults with autism spectrum disorder., Mol Autism, 2019
Helsmoortel C et. al., Challenges and opportunities in the investigation of unexplained intellectual disability using family-based whole-exome sequencing., Clin Genet, 2015
Wang T et. al., De novo genic mutations among a Chinese autism spectrum disorder cohort., Nat Commun, 2016
Feliciano P et. al., Exome sequencing of 457 autism families recruited online provides evidence for autism risk genes., NPJ Genom Med, 2019
Beighley JS et. al., Clinical Phenotypes of Carriers of Mutations in CHD8 or Its Conserved Target Genes., Biol Psychiatry, 2020
Krajewska-Walasek M et. al., Additional data on the clinical phenotype of Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome associated with a novel truncating mutation in ADNP gene., Am J Med Genet A, 2016
Alkhunaizi E et. al., Mutation in the ADNP gene associated with Noonan syndrome features., Clin Dysmorphol, 2018
Moreno-De-Luca A et. al., Molecular Diagnostic Yield of Exome Sequencing in Patients With Cerebral Palsy., JAMA, 2021
Brea-Fernández AJ et. al., Trio-based exome sequencing reveals a high rate of the de novo variants in intellectual disability., Eur J Hum Genet, 2022
Lindstrand A et. al., Genome sequencing is a sensitive first-line test to diagnose individuals with intellectual disability., Genet Med, 2022
et. al., , ,

NCBI: Gene

Integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.

Gene Reviews

An international point-of-care resource for busy clinicians, provides clinically relevant and medically actionable information for inherited conditions in a standardized journal-style format, covering diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling for patients and their families.


DECIPHER (DatabasE of genomiC varIation and Phenotype in Humans using Ensembl Resources) is an interactive web-based database which incorporates a suite of tools designed to aid the interpretation of genomic variants. DECIPHER enhances clinical diagnosis by retrieving information from a variety of bioinformatics resources relevant to the variant found in the patient.


SFARI Gene is an evolving online database designed to permit quick entrée into the genetics of autism, and to help researchers track the ever-expanding genetic risk factors that emerge in the literature.


ClinGen is a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded resource dedicated to building an authoritative central resource that defines the clinical relevance of genes and variants for use in precision medicine and research.


The GenCC DB provides information pertaining to the validity of gene-disease relationships, with a current focus on Mendelian diseases.


The Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) is a resource developed by an international coalition of investigators, with the goal of aggregating and harmonizing both exome and genome sequencing data from a wide variety of large-scale sequencing projects, and making summary data available for the wider scientific community.
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